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Sunday, 9 September 2012

Step by Step Creation of Cluster Database with the DBCA

Oracle Corp. recommends that use the DBCA to create the database this is because the DBCA’s pre-configured databases optimize your environment to take advantage of Oracle9i features such as the SPFILE and Automatic undo management. DBCA also enables to create specific tablespaces as part of the database creation process, even the DBF file requirement is different you can use the DBCA and modify the datafiles afterward. You can also execute user-specified scripts as part of the database creation process. DBCA also configure various high availability features and cluster administration tools.
Benefit of using DBCA in Configuration of RAC:
        If you did not use a cluster file system, then the DBCA verifies that you correctly configured the shared disks for each tablespace (for non-cluster file system platforms)
        Create the database
        Configure the Oracle network services
        Start the listener and database instances
Note: If you did dot create your database during installation then you can create one later using the DBCA in standalone mode.
How to Start DBCA
On UNIX enter the command DBCA from ORACLE_HOME/bin directory and on Windows choose Start –> Programs –> Oracle –> [ORACLE_HOME] –> Configuration and Migration Tools –> Database Configuration Assistant

Note: If the DBCA does not display the Real Application Clusters Welcome page with the Oracle cluster database option, then perform clusterware diagnostics by executing lsnodes –v command.
1.      Select Oracle cluster database and click Next.
Warning: You cannot successfully click Back after clicking Next. This prevents configuration problems that result from creating databases for both single-instance and cluster database environments during the same DBCA session.

Note: The DBCA only enables this page if there is at least one RAC database configured on your cluster.
2.      Select “Create a database” and click Next, and the DBCA displays node selection page.

3.   Then the Node Selection page shows the nodes that the DBCA detects in your cluster. Select the nodes that you want to configure as members of your cluster database and click Next. The DBCA selects the local node by default.
  • If nodes are missing from the Node Selection page, then perform clusterware diagnostics with lsnodes –v command.
  • If GSD is not running any of the nodes, then the DBCA displays a dialog explaining how to start the daemon using gsdctlstart command.

4.   Enter Global database name and the oracle SID prefix for your cluster database and click Next.
Note: The SID prefix must be between one and five characters in length and the database name can be up to eight characters in length and both must begin with an alphabetical character. The DBCA uses the SID prefix to generate a unique value for the ORACLE_SID for each instance.
After you click Next, if you selected the New Database option then the DBCA displays the Database Features page and If you selected one of the other pre-configured database options, then after you click Next the DBCA displays the Initialization Parameters page directly.

5.    Select the database features to configure in your cluster database and click Next. If you selected the   New Database template, then the DBCA displays the Database Connection Options page.

6.    Select the connection mode for your cluster database, click Next, and the DBCA displays the Initialization Parameters page.

7.    Select the File location tab on the initialization parameter page.
If you select Create server parameter file (spfile), then you may need to modify the location for the server parameter file depending on the type of file system as per the conditions:
        If you use a cluster file system, or if you have a single-node Real Application Clusters environment, then you can place the server parameter file on the file system.
        If you do not use a cluster file system and you are not creating a single-node Real Application Clusters database, then you must enter a raw device name for the location of the server parameter file in the Server Parameters Filename field.

8.    Select the Archive tab on the initialization parameter page to see the archive destination. Here you can not specify archive log destinations on a per-instance basis. You can set it later after the installation process.
Setting the Archive log Destination on per-instance basis.
  1. Set the CLUSTER_DATABASE parameter to false in the parameter file.
  2. Mount the database in exclusive mode.
  3. Set the LOG_ARCHIVE_START parameter to true.
  4. Set the cluster database e LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 as:
        Ensure that these archive log destinations are not on a file system which is on a shared disk. If the archive log destinations are on a shared disk, then they should not be cross mounted across the nodes because this would corrupt the file system metadata and Oracle cannot use the archive logs for recovery.
        Ensure that each instance’s archive log destination is mounted as read-write on its node and read only on other nodes. When one of the instances fails, mount its archive log destination as read-only onto the surviving instance’s node if it has not been already mounted.
  1. Execute the alter database Archivelog.
  2. Shutdown the database and restart it with the CLUSTER_DATABASE initialization parameter set to true.
9.    Click on “All initialization parameter” and carefully review these parameters as DBCA is going to configure these setting on your spfile.
        You cannot modify the SID in the Instance column.
        You can alter self-tuning parameters here. However, setting these parameters to inappropriate values may disable the Oracle self-tuning features.
        You cannot specify instance-specific values for global parameters with the DBCA. 

10.   After review and make sure that your entries for File location Tab and other tab are correct Close the initialization parameter dialogue and Click Next.

11.   Use the Database Storage page to enter file names for each tablespace such as SYSTEM, USERS, TEMP, DRSYS, TOOLS, INDX, and so on. The Storage page displays these file names in the Datafiles folder.
If you select a template that includes datafiles, then to rename default file, click the default file name and overwrite it. In case of pre-configured database template, you are not able to change the tablespace size from storage page.
Note: On UNIX, if you have not set the DBCA_RAW_CONFIG environment variable, then the DBCA displays default datafile names and on Windows, if the symbolic links do not exist, then the DBCA displays the default file system datafile file names on the Storage page.
Click Next after completing your entries on the Database Storage page and the DBCA displays the Creation Options page.

12.    Select the database option that you want to use and click on Finish that displays summary dialogue.
Create Database—creates the database
Save as a Database Template—creates a template that records the structure of the database, including user-supplied inputs, initialization parameters, and so on, which you can later use to create a database
Generate Database Creation Scripts—generates database creation scripts 

13.    Review the summary and click OK then DBCA display password page.

14.   Use the password page to override the default password settings for the SYS and SYSTEM user accounts. The DBCA also provides access to the Password Management page that enables you to selectively unlock and specify new passwords for other Oracle9i default user accounts.


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