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Wednesday, 25 April 2012

DBA Interview Questions with Answers Part1

What are four common errors found in an alert .log?
If we are getting any issue regarding database while performing any activity we should check alert log file in dump destination.. The four common error we find in alert.log are:
Deadlock Errors (ORA-00060), Oracle Internal errors, Backup and recovery errors, Snapshot too old error (O1555)
What is PCT Free/PCT Used/PCT increase parameter in segment? What is growth factor?
PCT-FREE is a block storage it uses to mention how much space should be left in database block for future updates (updating the records eg. previously name Smith after that we will update the name as Smith Taylor). If mention PCTFREE as 10, oracle will adding the new rows to block up to 90% it allows 10% for future updates.
If the PCT used was set to 60 this means if the data inside the block is 60 it is FULL and if the data inside the block is 59 it is Empty.
This is the parameter which specify in percent that a block can only used for insert or come in the free list(list of blocks in segment ready for insert operation) when used space in a block is less than PCTUSED.
Suppose value of pctused is 40 and pctfree is 20 then data can be inserted till 80 of the block directly. And suppose the used space is 60 and some one has perform a delete operation in a row in the same block which brings the used space to 50 .Now one cannot insert any record in the same block unless the used space comes down below 40 i.e. pctused.
What is dump destination? What are bdump, cdump and udump?
The dump destination is the location where the trace files are located for all the Oracle process.
bdump-->Background processes + alert_SID.log file location
cdump--> Core Processes dump, udump--> User Processes dump, adump--> for ASM processes
These destinations contains useful information related to process failures.
UDUMP is specifying the user dump directory where all user error logs (trace files) will be placed.
BDUMP is specifying the background dump directory where all database error logs (trace files) will be placed.
CDUMP is specifying the core dump directory where all OS error logs (core dump files) will be placed.
Default location is (ORACLE_BASE/admin/<SID>)
SQL>show parameters dump_dest;
It'll show you all the dump directories wherever it is currently located. You can change your parameters in init.ora by creating spfile from pfile.
What will you do if in any condition you do not know how to troubleshoot the error at all and there are no seniors or your co-workers around?
We need to find where in the compilation the error is occurring. We have to divide the code and check for correctness of the code part-by-part. This is called debugging. Keep checking the code until you find the code which is wrong.
Search forums for similar error codes or symptoms and make a plan then submit it to your supervising DBA if you are not authorized to carry it out yourself.
I am getting error "No Communication channel" after changing the domain name? What is the solution?
Here Question is not clear about Where the Oracle database is residing. If the Oracle Database is resides on your local machine then the domain name must be updated in the tnsnames.ora file. Change this file in ../Admin folder contained one. If you are accessing remote Database then there are no changes required to your tnsnames.ora file only check with tnsping with the database service name. Change the domain name in the sqlnet.ora file in NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN parameter
You have taken import of a table in a database. You have got the Integrity constraint violation error. How you are going to resolve it.
If u wants to import the table just says constraints=n the movement table got imported then u create constraint on that tables.
What is the most important action a DBA must perform after changing the database from NOARCHIVELOG TO ARCHIVELOG?
First of all take an offline backup of whole database (including the (datafile controlfile and redolog files). It is obvious that archive log process should be started by:
SQL>alter system Archivelog start;
Otherwise the database halts if unable to rotate redo logs
Show one instance when you encountered an error in alert log and you overcome that error. What actions you took to overcome that error.
Oracle writes error in alert log file. Depending upon the error corrective action needs to be taken.
1) Deadlock Error: Take the trace file in user dump destination and analysis it for the error.
2) ORA-01555 Snapshot error: Check the query try to fine tune and check the undo size.
3) Unable to extent segment: Check the tablespace size and if require add space in the tablespace by 'alter database datafile .... resize' or alter tablespace add datafile command.
What is Ora-1555 Snapshot too Old error? Explain in detail?
Oracle Rollback Segments (Undo more recently) hold a copy of data before it was modified and they work in a round-robin fashion. Writing and then eventually overwriting the entries as soon as the changes are committed.
They are needed to provide read consistency (a consistent set of data at a point in time) or to allow a process to abandon or rollback the changes or for database recovery.
Here’s a typical scenario:-
User A opens a query to fetch every row from a billion row table. If User B updates and commits the last row of the billion row table a Rollback entry will be created so User A can see the data as it was before the update.
Other users are busily updating rows in the database and this in turn generates rollback – which may eventually cause the entry needed for User A to be overwritten (after all User B did commit the change – so it’s OK to overwrite the rollback segment). Maybe 15 minutes later the query is still running and User A finally fetches the last row of the billion row table – but the rollback entry is gone. He gets ORA-01555: Snapshot too old rollback segment too small
I have applied the following commands: Now what will happen, will the database will give an error / it will work?
Shutdown abort;
Startup;
Definitely database will be start without error but all uncommitted data will be lost such as killed all sessions, killed all transactions, and didn't write from the buffers because shutdown abort directly shutdown instance without committing.
There is four modes to shutdown the database:
1) Shutdown immediate, 2) Shutdown normal, 3) Shutdown transactional, 4) Shutdown aborts
When the database is shutdown by first 3 methods checkpoint takes place but when is shutdown by abort option it doesn't enforces checkpoints, it simply shutdowns without waiting any users to disconnect.
What is mutated trigger? In single user mode we got mutated error, as a DBA how you will resolve it?
Mutated error will occur when same table access more than once in one state. If you are using before in trigger block then replace it with after.
Explain Dual table. Is any data internally stored in dual Table. Lot of users is accessing select sysdate from dual and they getting some millisecond differences. If we execute SELECT SYSDATE FROM EMP; what error will we get. Why?
Dual is a system owned table created during database creation. Dual table consist of a single column and a single row with value x. We will not get any error if we execute select sysdate from scott.emp instead sysdate will be treated as a pseudo column and displays the value for all the rows retrieved. For Example if there is 12 rows in emp table it will give result of date in 12 rows.
As an Oracle DBA what are the entire UNIX file you should be familiar with?
To check the process use:  ps -ef |grep pmon or ps -ef
To check the alert log file:  Tail -f alert.log
To check the cpu usage;    Top vmstat 2 5
What is a Database instance?
A database instance also known as server is a set of memory structures and background processes that access a set of database files. It is possible for a single database to be accessed by multiple instances (this is oracle parallel server option). 
What are the Requirements of simple Database?
A simple database consists of:
One or more data files, One or more control files, Two or more redo log files, Multiple users/schemas, One or more rollback segments, One or more Tablespaces, Data dictionary tables, User objects (table, indexes, views etc.)
The server (Instance) that access the database consists of:
SGA  (Database  buffer,  Dictionary  Cache  Buffers, Redo log buffers, Shared SQL pool), SMON (System Monitor),PMON (Process Monitor), LGWR (Log  Write), DBWR (Data Base Write), ARCH (ARCHiver), CKPT  (Check Point), RECO, Dispatcher, User Process with associated PGS
Which process writes data from data files to database buffer cache?
The Background process DBWR rights data from datafile to DB cache.
How to DROP an Oracle Database?
You can do it at the OS level by deleting all the files of the database. The files to be deleted can be found using:
1) select * from dba_data_files; 2) select * from v$logfile; 3) select * from v$controlfile; 4) archive log list
5) initSID.ora 6) clean the UDUMP, BDUMP, scripts etc, 7) Cleanup the listener.ora and the tnsnames.ora. Make sure that the oratab entry is also removed. 
Otherwise, go to DBCA and click on delete database.
In Oracle 10g there is a new command to drop an entire database.
Startup restrict mount;
drop database <instance_name>;
In fact DBA should never drop a database via OS level commands rather use GUI utility DBCA to drop the database
How can be determining the size of the log files.
Select sum(bytes)/1024/1024 "size_in_MB" from v$log;
What is difference between Logical Standby Database and Physical Standby database?
A physical or logical standby database is a database replica created from a backup of a primary database. A physical standby database is physically identical to the primary database on a block-for-block basis.  It's maintained in managed recovery mode to remain current and can be set to read only; archive logs are copied and applied.
A logical standby database is logically identical to the primary database.  It is updated using SQL statements
How do you find whether the instance was started with pfile or spfile
1) SELECT name, value FROM v$parameter WHERE name = 'spfile';
This query will return NULL if you are using PFILE
2) SHOW PARAMETER spfile
This query will returns NULL in the value column if you are using pfile and not spfile
3) SELECT COUNT(*) FROM v$spparameter WHERE value IS NOT NULL;
If the count is non-zero then the instance is using a spfile, and if the count is zero then it is using a pfile:
SQL> SELECT DECODE(value, NULL, 'PFILE', 'SPFILE') "Init File Type"
           FROM sys.v_$parameter WHERE name = 'spfile';
What is full backup?
A full backup is an operating system backup of all data files, on-line redo log files and control file that constitute oracle database and the parameter. If you are using the Rman for backup then in Rman full backup means Incremental backup on 0 level.
While taking hot backup (begin end backup) what will happens back end?
When we r taking hot backup (begin backup - end backup) the datafile header associated with the datafiles in the corresponding Tablespace is frozen. So Oracle will stop updating the datafile header but will continue to write data into datafiles. In hot backup oracle will generate more redos this is because oracle will write out complete changed blocks to the redo log files.
Which is the best option used to move database from one server to another serve on same network and Why?
Import – Export, Backup-Restore, Detach-Attach

Import-Export is the best option used to move database from one server to another serve on same network. It reduces the network traffic. Import/Export works well if you’re dealing with very small databases. If we have few million rows its takes minutes to copy when compared to seconds using backup and restore.
What is Different Type of RMAN Backup?
Full backup: During a Full backup (Level 0) all of the block ever used in datafile are backed up. The only difference between a level 0 incremental backup and a full backup is that a full backup is never included in an incremental strategy.
Comulative Backup: During a cumulative (Level 0) the entire block used since last full backup are backed up.
RMAN> BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 CUMULATIVE DATABASE; # blocks changed since level 0
Differential Backup: During incremental backup only those blocks that have changed since last cumulative (Level 1) or full backup (Level 0) are backed up. Incremental backup are differential by default.
RMAN> BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 DATABASE
Give one method for transferring a table from one schema to another:
There are several possible methods: Export-Import, CREATE TABLE... AS SELECT or COPY.
What is the purpose of the IMPORT option IGNORE? What is its default setting?
The IMPORT IGNORE option tells import to ignore "already exists" errors. If it is not specified the tables that already exist will be skipped. If it is specified, the error is ignored and the table’s data will be inserted. The default value is N.
What happens when the DEFAULT and TEMP tablespace clauses are left out from CREATE USER statements?
The user is assigned the SYSTEM tablespace as a default and temporary tablespace. This is bad because it causes user objects and temporary segments to be placed into the SYSTEM tablespace resulting in fragmentation and improper table placement (only data dictionary objects and the system rollback segment should be in SYSTEM).
What happens if the constraint name is left out of a constraint clause?
The Oracle system will use the default name of SYS_Cxxxx where xxxx is a system generated number. This is bad since it makes tracking which table the constraint belongs to or what the constraint does harder.
What happens if a Tablespace clause is left off of a primary key constraint clause?
This result in the index that is automatically generated being placed in then USERS default tablespace. Since this will usually be the same tablespace as the table is being created in, this can cause serious performance problems.
What happens if a primary key constraint is disabled and then enabled without fully specifying the index clause?
The index is created in the user’s default tablespace and all sizing information is lost. Oracle doesn’t store this information as a part of the constraint definition, but only as part of the index definition, when the constraint was disabled the index was dropped and the information is gone.
Using hot backup without being in archive log mode, can you recover in the event of a failure? Why or why not?
You can't recover the data because in archive log mode it take the backup of redo log files if it in Active mode, If it in inactive mode then it is not possible to take the backup of redolog files once the size is full, so in that case it is impossible to take hot backup
What causes the "snapshot too old" error? How can this be prevented or mitigated?
This is caused by large or long running transactions that have either wrapped onto their own rollback space or have had another transaction write on part of their rollback space. This can be prevented or mitigated by breaking the transaction into a set of smaller transactions or increasing the size of the rollback segments and their extents.
How can you tell if a database object is invalid?

84 comments:

  1. Dear Shahid,

    These questions are really helpful and these are explained in lucid language.

    Thanks for your efforts, keep it up !

    ReplyDelete
  2. hello sir
    really very nice que & ans. helping lot of people seeking for help. really we all appreciate your efforts. keep rolling.
    all d best

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Nishant,

      Nice to hear that you all are using my blog.

      Delete
  3. Shahid sir, This is Anand from chennai. i need answer for this below question?
    How do you gather statistics for table , Schema , Index ?? and
    what are different parameter are password to gather statistics ??

    · How do you create Table Partition and What are different type of table partitions Exists and what are they and
    what is difference between them

    · How do you create Table Partition
    / Sub partitions and
    What are different type of table partitions
    / Partitions Exists and what are they and what is difference between them

    · What is syntax to rebuild index and what are different way to rebuild index and in what situation index rebuild is required

    Thanks and regards
    Anand

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Anand,

      It is very difficult for typing these type of theoretical aspect answer live. I am just restricting my answer in some of the sentence. For details you can login my blog and use the search option. you will find all of your desired answer in details:

      Statistics are gathered using the DBMS_STATS package. The DBMS_STATS package can ‎gather statistics on table and indexes, and well as individual columns and partitions of ‎tables. When you generate statistics for a table, column, or index, if the data dictionary ‎already contains statistics for the object, then Oracle updates the existing statistics. The ‎older statistics are saved and can be restored later if necessary. When statistics are ‎updated for a database object, Oracle invalidates any currently parsed SQL statements ‎that access the object. The next time such a statement executes, the statement is re-parsed ‎and the optimizer automatically chooses a new execution plan based on the new statistics.‎
      exec dbms_stats.gather_table_stats ( -
      ‎ ownname => 'SCOTT', -
      ‎ tabname => 'EMP', -
      ‎ estimate_percent => dbms_stats.auto_sample_size, -
      ‎ method_opt => 'for all columns size auto', -
      ‎ cascade => true, -
      ‎ degree => 5 - );
      exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats ( -
      ‎ ownname => 'SCOTT', -
      ‎ options => 'GATHER', -
      ‎ estimate_percent => dbms_stats.auto_sample_size, -
      ‎ method_opt => 'for all columns size auto', -
      ‎ cascade => true, -
      ‎ degree => 5 - );‎

      You can create table partitioned in the situation when your table containing historical ‎data and you need to add new data into newest partitioned as you can update only the ‎current data or the situation when the tables size is greater then 2GB.‎
      Partitioned is useful for the applications that manage large volume of data. Tables can be ‎partitioned into up to 64,000 separate partitions. Any table can be partitioned except ‎those tables containing columns with LONG or LONG RAW data types.‎
      ‎1. Range Partitioning
      ‎2. List Partitioning
      ‎3. Hash Partitioning
      ‎4. Composite Partitioning

      Now days, we can build index online. It allows performing DML operation on the base ‎table during index creation. You can use the statements:‎
      CREATE INDEX ONLINE and DROP INDEX ONLINE, ALTER INDEX REBUILD ‎ONLINE is used to rebuild the index online.‎
      In fact there is no thumb rule “when you should rebuild the index”. According to expert ‎it depends upon your database situation:‎
      When the data in index is sparse (lots of holes in index, due to deletes or updates) and ‎your query is usually range based or If Blevel >3 then takes index in rebuild ‎consideration;‎
      Because when you rebuild indexes then database performance goes down. In fact binary ‎tree index can never be unbalanced. Binary tree performance is good for both small and ‎large tables and does not degrade with the growth of table.‎

      Delete
  4. Dear ..
    Sir.
    I found a little mistake on ur above command, as u, alter system Archivelog start;

    Hear should be a space between archive log
    alter system Archive log start;

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Tausif,
      Thanks for correcting me!. It may be typing mistake.

      Delete
  5. Dear shah,
    I heart fully say to you "Your my visionary" because of i am learning everything from your blog like DBA,RAC. Really we all are appreciate your efforts thank u so much.

    Thanks & Regards,
    Siva K

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Siva,
      Thanks a lot for your appreciated word.

      Delete
  6. i'm new to dba...how and where to start ????

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear,
      In fact in an industry you will start your work with Database Monitoring and Backup ‎related operation. Thus in my suggestion it is better to start and concentrate on Database ‎Backup and Recovery especially RMAN as well as different DB Monitoring concept ‎‎(focus on different db views) then gradually move for the Tablespace/Datafiles Space ‎Management later Cloning and Standby. Try to do the concept one by one on priority ‎basis, don't merge the concept and whatever the situation do not try to re-install your ‎database try to recover and fix it either yourself or help by someone. Make a habit to ‎share your database issues same as you are working on Production database. For any ‎further details topics you can search on my blog and can contact me directly.‎

      ‎With Best Wishes
      Shahid Ahmed

      Delete
  7. really very nice que & ans. helping lot of people seeking for help. really we all appreciate your efforts. keep rolling and thanks for your coperation

    ReplyDelete
  8. Hi,

    As i say it's really very nice n awesome way you explained everything. You got lot of comments on this n you deserved it. Thanks for sharing this. http://www.oracledbainterviewquestions.com

    Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Nice One.....

    For Exadata you can get enough info on http://exadatacertification.blogspot.in/

    ReplyDelete
  10. hello sir

    Luckily I found your blog and it is really helpful for all DBAs. As I am a fresher it seems a greats place to study here .
    Its a knowledgeful blog . great work .

    regards
    Praveen

    ReplyDelete
  11. very useful for this information....thank u.....


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  12. hello sir,

    Which process writes data from data files to database buffer cache?

    i taught it is server process,

    in blog u writtten has it is DBWR

    which one is correct?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. what sir was told is correct..
      the database writer process writes modified buffers(also called as dirty buffers) from database buffer cache to data files on the disk.

      Delete
  13. Replies
    1. Dear,

      Please don't try to post any thing related to the advertisement.

      Thanks & Regards
      Shahid Ahmed

      Delete
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    Replies
    1. Dear All,

      Please avoid posting advertisement on blog

      Thanks & Regards
      Shahid Ahmed

      Delete

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  19. its was really verry help ful for us.. thanks for these block sir.. but i have some doubt about
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    ReplyDelete
  20. one more question from you sir
    - how to see the free space in particular directory?

    ReplyDelete
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  57. Thanks a lot sir for sharing these useful questions and answers.
    In ques no. 2 PCTFREE and PCTUSED both are mentioned but I am not able to understand PCTINCREASE.
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